# ALL ABOARD! – One-Point Perspective, Space, Colour

Students create a one-point perspective drawing and use coloured pencil techniques to create the illusion of depth.

120 Minutes

Art Techniques
Mathematics
Visual Arts

#### Vocabulary

background depth foreground horizon line linear perspective middle ground one-point perspective space vanishing point

#### Materials

Crayola Marker and Watercolour Paper – 22.9 cm x 30.5 cm cm (9” X 12”) Pencils Rulers Erasers Train Track Images

## Steps

### Step One

Before beginning your perspective drawing use the Coloured Pencil Techniques worksheets to explore ways to use the coloured pencils. You will use some of these techniques to colour your perspective drawing.

### Step Two

Choose a photocopy of one of the train track pictures. Cut out a small section of your picture that includes a segment of the track. Glue it to your paper. Make sure you place it on the paper in a spot that matches its placement in the photograph. For example, if you cut out a section that includes the horizon line, make sure you glue the section where the horizon line will be in your drawing. If you cut out a section that is in the foreground of the photocopy, make sure you glue your section in the foreground on your paper.

### Step Three

Locate the vanishing point on your drawing. All lines that look as if they are going off into the distance will meet at this vanishing point which is on the horizon, or eye-level line.

### Step Four

Locate the horizon line on your drawing. It is sometimes called the eye-level line, and is the line where the sky and earth seem to meet. Draw the horizon line across your whole paper.

### Step Five

Place your ruler along one of the tracks. Line it up with the vanishing point, and draw a line extending the track to the bottom edge of your paper. Repeat for the other track.

### Step Six

Draw the lines that are closest to the viewer first, for example, the edge the building. Things that are standing straight up and down are drawn parallel to the sides of the paper. Things that are meant to lie flat are drawn parallel to the top and bottom of the paper.

### Step Seven

Use your ruler to line up the top and bottom of the edges of objects with the vanishing point, for example, the sides of the house, the roof line and the door. Add lots of details to your drawing to make it interesting.

### Step Eight

Use a variety of coloured pencil techniques to colour your drawing. Remember that colour can help create the illusion of depth. The colours of things closest to the viewer look brighter and more intense than the colours of things furthest away from the viewer. Colours in the distance look dull and pale. Details in the distance look fuzzy and details in the foreground look sharp.

## Learning Goals

Students will be able to:

1. Create a one-point perspective drawing;
2. Use a variety of coloured pencil techniques;
3. Use contrast and shading to create the illusion of depth;
4. Demonstrate technical accomplishment; and
5. Support their ideas with evidence found in the works.

## Extensions

1. Have students draw different polyhedrons using one-point perspective, and then shade them using a variety of colours.
2. Have students teach a peer how to draw one-point perspective objects.

## Prepare

1. Prior to starting the perspective lesson, have students do the Coloured Pencil Techniques worksheet. (Downloads - COLOURED_PENCIL_worksheet.pdf)
2. Download and photocopy a variety of train images from the Internet. Be sure they demonstrate one-point perspective, for example,
Chamus
Salem
Station
Tunnel
Dockendorf
St Erth
One-Point
Spitfire
Masaccio
De La Hyre
Summer Day

## Introduction

1. Examine several of the photographs and discuss how the illusion of depth is created. Place a ruler over the pictures to show how lines meet at one point – the vanishing point.
2. Explain the concept of linear perspective and one-point perspective in particular.
3. Write the steps for drawing one-point perspective objects on a chart paper. Place it where students can see it over the course of the lesson.
- Draw the horizon line. This is at the viewer's eye level.
- Draw a vanishing point on the horizon line. This is the point directly in front of the viewer.
- Draw a vertical line to represent the edge of an object that is closest to the viewer.
- Lightly draw guide lines from the top and bottom of the line to the vanishing point.
- Use the guidelines to determine the angle of the receding lines.
- Draw things that are standing straight up and down parallel to the sides of the paper.
- Draw things that are meant to lie flat parallel to the top and bottom of the paper
4. View some of the perspective images and discuss how colour and detail add to the sense of space in the pictures.
5. Have students identify characteristics of colour and detail in various parts of the pictures. Make a list of these characteristics on a chart paper.
- colours closest to the viewer are brighter and more intense than colours in the background
- details closest to the viewer are sharper than details in the background
- things in the background are smaller than things in the foreground
- things in the background are higher on the picture plane than things in the foreground
6. Introduce the challenge.

## Activities

### The Challenge

1. Create a one-point perspective drawing that includes train tracks.
2. Use a variety of coloured pencil techniques.
3. Use contrast and shading to create the illusion of depth.
4. Demonstrate technical accomplishment.
5. Support your ideas with evidence found in the works.

### The Process

1. Guide students through the steps outlined in this lesson plan.
2. Observe students as they work.
3. Encourage them to share and expand on each others' ideas.
4. Provide individual assistance and encouragement.

## Sharing

1. Place students into small groups.
- Compare their work and describe to each other what they did to get certain effects.
- Talk about coloured pencil techniques they used and why.
- Talk about what was difficult and what was easy for them.
3. Share ideas with the whole class.
4. Ask them to tell how they felt about doing this project.

## Assessment

1. Observe students as they work  – thoughtful focus, discriminating, seeking more information, elaborating, experimenting
2. Observe students as they discuss the art works – active listening, insightful contributions, supporting ideas with evidence found in the artwork and from personal experience.